History of computing hardware (Pre-computer to 19th century to 20th)

History of Computer Hardware.

The first used of the word “computer” was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculation, or computation, and the world continued with the same meaning until the middle of 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onward, the word began to take on its familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out calculations.

Picture (Limited function early computer)
The Jacquard loom, on display at museum of science and industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies-automated calculation and programmability-but no single device can identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of the term. Examples of early mechanical calculating devices include the abacus, he side rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by Greeks around 80 BC. 
The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10-70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which part of the mechanism performed which actions and when. This is the essence of programmability. Which Programming Language should I learn.

The “castle clock”, an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considerable to be the earliest programmable analog computer. It displayed the zodiac, the solar and the lunar orbits, crescent moon-shape pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to pen every hour, and five robotic musicians who played music when struck by leavers operated by the camshaft attached to water wheel. The length of the day and the night could be re-programmed to compensate for the changing lengths of the day and the night throughout the year.

In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of the computers in two separate ways; initially, it is trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized(Charles Babbage, Alan Turing) and then developed (ABC, Z3, ENIAC) leading to personal the development of mainframe computers, but also the microprocessor, which started the personal computer revolution, and which is now at the heart of all computer systems regardless of size or purpose, was invented serendipitously by Intel during the development of an electronic calculator, a direct descendant to the mechanical calculator.

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